More Putting Predicaments

Last time we discussed some rather challenging holes of (mathematical) mini-golf, uncovering Tokarski’s construction of some un-hole-in-one-able holes. By contrast, here is the all-time easiest hole of mini-golf, namely, a guaranteed hole-in-one:

By some miracle of geometry, if we take an ellipse (i.e., a stretched or squashed circle) and place the ball and cup at two special points $$F_1$$ and $$F_2$$ called the foci of the ellipse, then any golf shot leaving $$F_1$$ will bounce off a wall and proceed directly to $$F_2$$.[1] You can’t miss![2]

Curiously, this easiest golf hole can be used to construct some even more challenging ones. For starters, consider a mushroom-shaped room as illustrated below (left), where the “mushroom head” is half of an ellipse with foci $$F_1$$ and $$F_2$$. Then the same reflection principle mentioned above tells us that any shot entering the mushroom head via segment $$F_1F_2$$ will be reflected straight back through $$F_1F_2$$ and sent back down the stem. This means that no shot from P can ever reach the triangular “fang” containing Q, and in particular, no hole-in-one from P to Q is possible. In the mirrored-room setting (described last time), if a light source is placed at P, then the whole triangular fang remains unilluminated! This is stronger than Tokarski’s room, where only a single point remained unlit. Similar constructions are possible even with rooms that have no corners[3], such as the “curvy” mushroom on the right.

With this idea, we can construct a mirrored room that has dark patches no matter where a light bulb is placed. In the image below, if a light source is placed anywhere in the top half of the room, the lower triangular “fang” will be completely dark. Similarly, the upper fang is not illuminated from anywhere in the bottom half of the room. This room (or one quite like it) was originally designed by Roger Penrose in 1958.

Back in the mini-golf setting, we can do something even more devious: by chaining multiple Penrose rooms together, we can construct golf holes that require as many shots as we wish! The golf hole below cannot be completed with fewer than 7 shots. Indeed, no single shot can cross two dashed segments with different numbers, so 7 shots are required.[4]

What about polygons?

The golf holes last time were all polygons, whereas we have allowed curved boundaries here. Can we construct a polygonal golf hole, using only flat walls, that still requires at least 7 shots? Or even 3? Unfortunately, the answer this time is “we don’t know, but we think not.” In particular, it has been conjectured that, no matter where the ball and cup are placed in a polygonal golf hole, a single shot can place the ball as close to the hole as desired, so a short second putt can finish the job.[5]

Notes

1. In fact, even more is true: all of these paths from $$F_1$$ to $$F_2$$ have the same length! We will not prove these facts today. []
2. Assuming you hit hard enough, of course. []
3. For the analysts out there, the room’s boundary can be made smooth. []
4. This too can be accomplished with smooth boundary. []
5. More strongly, O’Rourke and Petrovici conjecture that with a single light source in a polygonal room, the set of unilluminated points has measure 0. Reference: Joseph O’Rourke and Octavia Petrovici. Narrowing Light Rays with Mirrors. Proceedings of the 13th Canadian Conference on Computational Geometry, 137–140, 2001. []

How Unilluminating!

You are standing in a large, oddly-shaped room, all of whose walls are lined with mirrors. Everything is dark except for a single light bulb somewhere else in the room. The light from this bulb spreads out in all directions and bounces off the mirrors, possibly many times over. Is it possible that, despite all the mirrors, you could still be standing in the dark, unable to see light from this bulb from any direction?

Said differently, consider the room as a large hole of mathematical mini-golf, where the locations of the ball (just one point) and cup (also just a point) are predetermined. Your goal is to pick a direction to hit the ball, hoping that it will reflect off the walls and eventually find its way to the cup. Is a hole-in-one always possible?

We assume that when a ray of light (i.e., the golf ball) hits a mirror, it reflects perfectly, as illustrated above. Let’s also assume that it never loses energy, so it will continue as far as necessary to reach its destination. There’s one corner case to consider, namely, what happens if the ray hits a corner of the room? Well, it’s (usually) ambiguous as to where it should reflect next, so let’s say that the ray just dies if it hits a corner. In the mini-golf formulation, our hole-in-one must avoid the hole’s corners.

With these rules in place, it turns out that it is possible to be left in the dark, or to make a hole-in-one impossible! One of the first examples, provided by Tokarski in 1995[1], is illustrated below; let’s call this room R.

Let’s see why this room R works, i.e., why point Q is not illuminated by a light source at P.

Notice that R is built from identical square cells. As our ray of light continues through the room, we can keep track of where it is in its current cell—but not which cell it is in—by imagining that the ray is just bouncing around in a single square, as illustrated below. Call this single square S. We are essentially folding up the light ray’s trajectory into S.

Color the grid points with light yellow and dark purple as illustrated above; in particular, P and Q are both yellow. Tokarski’s room has the interesting property that every dark purple point is in fact a corner of the room, so if the ray hits there, it dies. This means that the corresponding ray in square S would die when hitting one of the purple corners. So, in order for the light to reach Q in Tokarski’s room, the corresponding path in S must start at the yellow corner, end back at this same corner, and completely avoid the purple corners of the square. I claim this is impossible. Why?

Just as we folded room R into a single square, let’s consider unfolding square S to cover the whole plane. Because we’ve assumed perfect reflections, our trajectory in cell S unfolds to a straight line!

This means that we would need to find a straight trajectory from the initial yellow point to some other yellow point that does not hit any purple points. But this is impossible: all the yellows are blocked by purples![2] So the light can’t get from P to Q in Tokarski’s room, as claimed.

This room R is not the only example of an unilluminable room; with similar methods, many such rooms may be constructed. For example, in an effort to find an unilluminable room with the smallest number of edges, Tokarski provided the 26-sided polygon below on the left, which was then improved by Castro[3] to a 24-sided polygon on the right.[4] Both are built from 45-45-90 triangles instead of square cells.

Tokarski also provides the gem below (with no right angles!), and his paper gives recipes for a wide variety of other shapes.

Here’s a challenge: so far, we’ve seen that it is possible to design a mathematical mini-golf hole that requires at least 2 shots. Can we make an even harder hole? Can we design one that needs at least, say, 10 shots? We’ll discuss this next time. See you then!

Notes

1. George W. Tokarsky. Polygonal Rooms Not Illuminable from Every Point. American Mathathematical Monthly, 102:867–879, 1995. []
2. Here’s a proof: given any yellow-yellow segment, its midpoint lies on the grid. If this midpoint is purple, then we’re done. Otherwise, take half of the original segment and repeat this argument. []
3. D. Castro. Corrections. Quantum 7:42, 1997. []
4. It is not known whether 24 is minimal. []